Islamic astrology pdf

Astronomy and Astrology in the Islamic World

Horoscopes by Astrology. Horoscopes from Astrology. More by webjyotishi. Numerology Vedic Free. Numerology - Western Free. Online Numerology App with accuracy based on Modern Numerology. Astrology - Occult. Find your answers. Astrology app for remedies, gems, rudraksha recommendation and predictions. Krishna Shalaka answers your questions of life with blessings of lord Krishna. The pre-Islamic Arab's notion of qadar was in some ways similar to that of the early Muslims: both emphasised predetermination and the irresistible power of fate. But while the jahilf Pre-Islamic Arabs identified fate with the malign power of dahr Time , the Muslims believed the power of fate lies in the hands of God the Omnipotent, who alone is responsible for the fate of the whole universe.

Thus the astrology of the pre-Islamic era was one aspect of divination kihana and claimed to be able to reveal in advance an individual's destiny, which could be avoided by taking certain precautions. These precautions, however, were considered effective only in relatively trivial cases; they were useless in the areas of major impact: a person's happiness or misery shaqiiwa aw sa ada , sustenance rizq and one's term ajal , the three inevitable and irresistible manifestations of fate.

In the Islamic period not only these major aspects of life are governed and controlled by the Omnipotent; the destiny of the universe, in even its most minute details, is determined and controlled by God alone. Astrology was considered to be of no value whatsoever, and its practitioners were subject to the death penalty.

These two irreconcilable views are evident in early Islamic poetry, which reflected clearly the response of poets, and society, to astrology from the perspective of qadar. When the orthodox caliphate was replaced by dynastic rule the status of astrology was changed dramatically. Suleyman II. Selim Mustafa b. Ali el- Muvakkit? Selim III. Mehined IV. Murad I. Mehmed Muneccimek Mehmed b. Ahmed III. Ahmed II. Mustafa III. Ahmed Eyyubi Ahmed b.

Ahmed I. Mahmud Ahmed Efendi b. Mahmud III. Osman III. Abdulhamid I. Selim IV. Mustafa II. Muraf II. Abdulhamid V. Mehmed VI. March 2, He was the first famous astronomer that was educated in the Ottoman Empire. He wrote several treatises and books on geography and astronomy. Those are mostly in Turkish and some of them are in Arabic. Takiyuddin Rasid or - Feb. He was very well educated. Considering that Zij-i Ulugh Beg was insufficient, erroneous and has to be corrected by new observations, he has made an attempt for the foundation of a new observatory.

He started observations in at the Galata Tower, then moved to the new building in and gathered the astronomers there. He had produced all classical observatory tools, also designed new tools. He constituted a rich library. Murad on this occasion. He predicted it to be a harbinger of good tidings and a sign of the success of Turkish army against Persia. Although Persia was defeated in this way, the Turkish army too experienced certain reverses in the course of the war, and there was also a plague in this year. In addition the deaths of several important people occured with short intervals.

These seem to have created a negative attitude towards the observatory, and stirred the rivalry of some ulema Muslim theologians and statesmen. Murad against the observatory. Sheikh ul-lslam claimed that wherever observatories were constructed and men dared to pry into the secrets of the heavens, divine punishment resulted in the form of natural disasters, epidemics or wars. The Sultan got scared and in the beginning of ordered the observatory to be demolished. This order was executed by the Navy, which destroyed the observatory by cannon fire.

After that event, Takiyuddin could not be seen in public. He had locked himself in his house. The Istanbul Observatory was the last great observatory in Islam. With its demolition, leadership in astronomy passed over completely to Europe. The observations made and the works written by Takiyuddin with a full scientific mind have been undervalued by some people, his works have been slandered, moreover it has been rumored that he had been educated by a Jewish astrologer.

Besides the people who have slandered him scientifically, there have been some other people like Sheikh ul-lslam who have slandered him personally. In western and eastern sources it has been claimed that he was an imitator and had taken all those information from someone else. Recent researches had proven the contrary. His observations were more precise and exact then the observations of Tycho Brahe, and their devices were very similar, but he couldn't complete his observations. Ali el-Rumi? He first worked as a timekeeper, later became the munajjim-bashi.

He knew Arabic, Persian and some of the European languages. Benefiting from the astronomy and astrology books written in these languages, he wrote a work named Ahkam-i Sal-i Alem. Following timekeepers and munajjims had studied this work as a textbook. In his time, his calendars were very famous. He was especially known with his skill in predictons.

He had predicted the deaths of Sultan I. Ahmed and Sultan II. When asked how he knew Sultan II. Osman's death, he answered "On the day of his birth, there ums a kusuf eclipse. According to the science of stars, this ivas predestined ". After he was appointed as munajjim-bashi, Sultan IV had tested his skill on ilm-i nucum. Upon his unerring calculations he had been rewarded and his reputation became well known in the public.

He had predicted Sultan Murad's death in his calendar and this prediction increased his reputation. As the grand vizier, statesmen and the public were consulting him about their issues and acting upon his advice, in the course of time he got more influencial and this power had caused him to overstep the limits. In March , together with Munajjim Hasan Kufri, Muneccimek Efendi and Sadreddin-Zade Efendi, he had prepared the sailing horoscope of Crete expedition and upon the victory of this expedition he became more famous. When he had predicted Sultan Ibrahim's death too in his calendar in advance, he became uncontrollable and poked his nose into other government issues, which were none of his business.

He placed his own people to various positions in the government and this caused many people to turn against him. Within twenty years, the number of these enemies had increased.

Magic, Ritual, and Witchcraft

When he had miscalculated the solar eclipse in the year of Sultan IV. Mehmet's accession and had shown sultan's accession as his death by mistake in the calendar, he had fallen from grace. Thereafter he had been discharged, imprisoned and released under condition that he would go into exile in Egypt.

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But he didn't go to Egypt and started a fight to take his position back. So he was given death penalty. Huseyin Efendi, who was looking at his horoscope for his every action, had looked at it that night again and said, "My fortune is reaching an inauspicious interruption tomorrow. Blind to this interruption, I stayed prisoned at this house, couldn't go somewhere else, I don't know what will happen to me.

And furthermore, my heart is under the invasion groundless fear, which supports this situation. Definitely, early in the morning I need to ask for a boat, cross the sea Bosphorous and with two horses waiting in Anatolia I have to leave.

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The security had strangled Huseyin Efendi there and thrown his body to the sea. Muneccimek Mehmed b. Ahmed b. Mehmed He attracts attention in terms of illustrating the point of view of the Ottoman intellectuals about the Western science. In the introduction of this book he tells this story about Muneccimek, " He read it, but couldn't see anything outstanding there. He said 'These Frenks Europeans have lots of presumptions'. I humbly smiled and showed its profession. After he had applied their calendar to the Zij-i Ulugh Beg and other zijs, he zvas very pleased and said 'you had offered us a treasure like the treasure ofEgypy'.

However after Kose Ibrahim had shown him the usefulness of the work, he had appreciated its value. Mustafa Zeki el-istanbuli Even though he had worked as a munajjim-bashi for 14 years, he had been discharged because of miscalculating the first day of the Ramadan for many years. He had pointed out the errors on the Cassini Zij to the sultan and asked the Lalande Zij to be used for the calculations, beginning from This school was opened in after the declaration of Tanzimat, to teach the rakam calendar preparation and educate the timekeepers, and lasted for approximately 5 years.

This was the first independent astronomy school in the Ottoman Empire. Osman Saib Efendi He was knowledgeable on philosophy and rational sciences. He learned Arabic and French. His knowledge of medicine was perfect. He was one of the first teachers of the medical school. He taught especially anatomy lessons from his own notes that he had compiled using French medicine books.

Mustafa Behcet Efendi, the chief physician and the director of the school of medicine, considered Osman Saib as his rival, so he told the Sultan that Osman Saib was more knowledgable on ilm-i nucum than medicine. As a result, he had been assigned as the second munajjim and even though he never liked, he had been forced to deal with astrological issues till his death. Together with Bashoca Ishak Efendi and others, he was one of the well-known masters who have a notable place with his contributions to the development of the history of Turkish science and one of the first reformists on science and medicine.

He wrote especially on medicine, geography, astronomy and mathematics. His works on medicine has been used as textbooks in the school of medicine. For calendar preparation he had used the ephemerises Connaissance de temps published every year by the French observatory. Huseyin Hilmi Efendi He was the last munajjim of the Ottoman palace.

Upon his death the institution of munajjim-bashi had been abolished, time keeping and preparing the calendar business had continued to function at the time keeping houses muvakkitlik , but this institution had also been abolished in Nuri Engin tells, during World War I when enemy forces were pressing Canakkale Gallipoli , the state was discussing to move the center of government. Sultan V. Mehmet Resat, before making any decision, asked Huseyin Hilmi Efendi if there really was a danger of the enemy to break into Istanbul or not.

With the help of his student and director of the new observatory Fatin Gokmen, Huseyin Hilmi Efendi had casted 37 the horoscope and informed the sultan that after three days the star positions would change and the enemy would not be able break into Istanbul.

Really, as the attact three days later had been futile once again, enemy had withdrawn from the frontiers of Canakkale. He was giving astronomy lessons at the madrasahs and upon the abolition of madrasahs he was unemployed. But since he knew the old and new astronomy very well, many students started to take private lessons from him on astronomy, physics, mathematics, geometry, calendar and time.

The photo is given by his grand daughter. Many thanks to Sara Sayin. Treatise was written in and dedicated to Sultan Bayezid II. He had written many valuable treatises on astronomy, which were dedicated to Bayezid II. It was known that he had written a treatise on astrology, named el-Makasid Intentions Arabic , but while doing this research I had encountered another treatise, called Risale fi Ahkanu'n Nucum Treatise on the Judgement of Stars Ottoman language.

The scholars from the Istanbul University, whom I have made an agreement, are translating both of them, but since a detailed astrological study is needed, the translations of these treatises will be presented later as a separate work. As an introduction, it can be said that Risale fi Ahkami'n Nucum and el-Makasid are very detailed books on horary astrology, first introducing the rules of horary astrology, then, explaining it with examples.

The Astrological Mysticism of Shaykh al-Akbar Ibn Arabi

He says that he had consulted books in the course of preparing Marifetname, in which he set out to explain what is known about the entire universe. He begins with the Islamic doctrine of the Creation, the cosmos, the angels, heaven and hell. Then he explains the theory of the four elements air, water, fire and earth as interpreted by Islamic philosophers, and how these combine to form minerals, plants, animals and human beings, and gives information about the old astronomy and the new astronomy.

In the section on the human body he repeats the medieval theories of Ibni Sina Avicenna , and in his chapters on morality discusses human behaviour. Scattered around the book are poems woven with mystic ideas, and it ends with a kiydfetname concerning the art of understanding a person's character from his physical attributes. Marifetname is written largely in plain Turkish. The book was widely read over a long period, reprinted many times and there are many precious manuscript copies in libraries and collections. Even today it is a popular book among some circles.

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A figure from Marifetname At the astrology section of Marifetname, there are explanations about the nine spheres, the characters and attributes of the planets, elections according to the Moon in the signs. Moon's mansions, the four elements, the temperaments and the planetary hours.

Mirrih Mars rules the Saturday night. Utarid Mercury is victorious over Wednesday. Count both the day and the night as 12 hours. The hours of the day and night are measured according to shortness and length, not equalness. Whichever planet corresponds to the hour you live in, it is still ruling. The hour it rules is serious. Its residence is the seventh sphere. Construct a building and don't start something new at this hour. Commerce, dealings, transporting and marriage are good at this hour. Even, you can start everything now.

Give blood now And don't visit anybody. Its residence is the fourth sphere. It is good to visit the authorized at this hour. When it is ruling be with your friends and lovers. Listen to nice words and szveet melodies. Relieve with nice conversations. In its time write something or write a letter. Read a book. At this time of the day, it is very popular to draw a picture or do the bookkeeping. The time it rules is good for journey.

And it is good for trade, to form a partnership, to send a message or a letter. O Hakki! Acknowledge the God, that everything is under his judgement. Know this and forget the rest. They are all ephemeral and transitory. The alive and everlasting is Allah. They may be divided as western occidential and eastern oriental. Western one was once used in the palace in the forms of horary, electional and nativity. As we have seen the munajjims of the palace had attended the madrasahs, learned mathematics, geometry, medicine, astronomy and astrology there. They had been practicing horary, electional and nativity intensely, and in order to do that they needed the day, hour and place of birth of the native.

This was the general condition mainly in the cities. In the towns and villages of Anatolia, where the birth records were not kept at all, another kind of astrology was used. This system, called as the eastern system, is still in practice and very popular among people as a way of fortune telling and magic.

The practioners of this system are not called astrologers.

14 - Islam's position on Magic and Astrology - Fundamentals of Faith - Yasir Qadhi

They are usually named as hodja. Hodja literally means a teacher or a prayer leader. Hodja is also a name given to a devout Muslim man who is respected for his knowledge and who may perform a specific duty within an Islamic community, but magicians or men who prepare the amulets or talismans are called hodja too.

In order to prepare the amulets or function as an astrologer, using the Yildizname the book of the stars , the hodja must know Ilm-i Cifr Celt, Djafr the knowledge of the secret of numbers and letters. In the knowledge of letters the Abjad system is used.

The word abjad means "alphabet" in general. In the Abjad system, the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values, based on the Abjadi order. For example, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, alif , is used to represent 1; the second letter, ba, is used to represent 2, etc. You can see the table below for the values of all of the Arabic letters. Havass - Instead of words.

For example numerical value of Muhammed is For example, a child was named "Sevgen" when he was born at The numerical value of Sevgen is Then divide the total by For example: My name is Baris, my mother's name is Nezahat. Second example: Name: Mustafa, Mother: Rukiye. Mustafa is 25, Rukiye is The left over is 9, so he is a Sagittarius, which is correct. Although these are correct, usually you end up with incorrect answers, both with Arabic and Latin letters. Still, this issue needs a careful study, which can be the subject of another research which includes learning the knowledge of cifr.

With the Latin alphabet Zekai is 27, Ayse is The sum is The left over is 7, so his sign may be Libra, but we know that he is a Leo. Now let's do the same with Arabic letters. After you find the sign with this calculation, you read the explanation about this sign from the Yildizname. In the books I could find, usually there were general explanations, but I guess the ancient texts are full of more detailed information.

Unfortunately it is not easy to find them, because they are hidden like a treasure. You need to be a disciple of the hodja to study them. Even if you find them, it is hard to read them, because they are written with Arabic alphabet. This is a subject that needs a separate and detailed investigation. Will love her family and they will love her. She will carry a mark on her right hand. She will keep her word, and she is generous with her food. She ages slowly and doesn't want to marry. The house of her properties is Sevr Taurus. She will have lots of bread.

She is cautious. God will open her the doors of happiness. The house of siblings is Cevza Gemini. Her siblings will love her. She will receive inheritence from her siblings. The house of mother and father is Seretan Cancer. Her father will die during her childhood. The house of children is Esed Leo. Will have lots of children, but they are not dutiful. The house of illness is Sunbule Virgo.

Will be ill because of the evil eye of men and genies. If she carries an amulet, she will recover. The house of husband is Mizan Libra. Will marry twice. The first one is futile. The second one is religious and trustworthy, will have lots of benefits. The house of death is Akreb Scorpio.

May die at the age of one. If not, will have a long life. The house of enemies is Hut Pisces. Her enemies will put a spell on her. They are two men or women. Tuesday is blessed. Wednesday and Lriday are good-for-nothing. April is good. Must carry a red ruby on her finger. Blessed if wears red dress.

It is good to eat sour. Will have fear of death three times. At the ages of two, twenty or twenty five. If doesn't die then, will live a long life. Almost any question can be answered with it. Here some simple examples are given: -Is it good for these two persons to get married? Primitive answer You take their names and signs.

Find their numerical values. If the total is an even number, the answer is yes, because marriage needs two persons. Find the numerical value of your question, do some other calculations. At the end you may reach to a letter that symbolizes Libra, since the ruler of Libra is Venus, you can say "it will be good". At the ilm-i cifr knowledge of numbers and letters the 28 letters are divided into four according to the four elements.

So every element has 7 letters. Some of those letters indicate the degrees, minutes and seconds. Then those letters are distributed to the signs. Besides that every planet and every Moon's mansion has a letter. Some letters are benefic and some letters are malefic. The system is quiet complicated and ilm-i cifr is not the main topic of this research, but I wanted to give an idea how sophisticated the system is. Although the example from a Yildizname given above sounds very simplistic, the hodjas can find the Ascendant by observing the sky , and the decanates and even the degrees by using the abjad.

And the main scholars of this knowledge are Muhiddin-i Arabi d. The main purpose of ilm-i cifr was to interpret the esoteric meaning of Quran. Today among the public, it is mainly used to prepare amulets, talismans. During the Ottoman Empire time it was also used to prepare talismanic shirts. Especially Sultan's were wearing them. Source: Elemterefis 47 Astrology in Istanbul at the Beginning of 20th Century Here the astrology sections of two books will be given.

East (and South) Asian Traditions in Astrology and Divination as Viewed from the West

One of them, written by Balikhane Naziri Ali Riza Bey, is about the life in old Istanbul, the other one, written by Abdulaziz Bey, explains the old traditions. Balikhane Naziri Ali Riza Bey, in his book, at the Would-be Astrologers section under the title of The Ones Who Live off the Public would-be hodjas, would-be astrologers, wishing wells, would-be Islam preachers has written as follows : 1 "Formerly we, the natives of Istanbul, used to give much importance to the notifications of astrologers and their the predictions for the future. In order to start something we absolutely asked for eyyam-i su'd auspicious days.

At the notification sections of the calendars, auspicious and inauspicious days were noted and since most of the people were inclined to look at the stars for the fortune, they were taking such phrases into consideration. There were even such people who would not like to go out at the days corresponding to a particular sign; for example, they would say, " Very often, by turning to these books, they would do predictions looking at the southwester at the beginning of month, rain on the fifteenth day of the month, rednesses seen at the horizon, the solar and lunar eclipses, earthquakes, stars and comets.

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Constellations, Fix Stars and the Zodiac in the Islamic Astronomy. September . Although many Islamic scholars judged astrology to contravene religion. Astrology, as it was spread through the Middle Ages within Christian and. Islamic civilizations and which still subsists in certain Arab countries, owes its form to.

And they were very determined to make the marriage agreement at that day and hour, and even at that minute. Many people could be seen holding their watch in their hands and waiting. A person mostly from the scholar class was assigned as the Munajjim of the Sultan, which was an official position in the government. When an important and official job or construction of a government building was to be started, for the determination of the auspicious hour, munajjim-bashi was asked to prepare a calculation, called zayice, and the work was started or the first stone of the building was placed, animals were sacrificed at the time, hour, even minute determined accordingly.

This tradition of auspicious time was very much exaggerated. They were even postponing the Sultan's accession till the time that was determined by the munajjim-bashi. This necessity of the determining the auspicious time was not limited with these. Ordinary people were also, before they build a house, start a journey, move from home to the summer house, from the summer house to Istanbul, start an important job, organize the wedding ceremony, consulting the munajjim-bashi, if they know him, if not they were going to other well known astrologers.

Besides these, the munajjim-bashi was also preparing judgements about the future of the new sultan's reign, when a change in sultanate took place. The title of this horoscope was 48 zayice-i-tali-i Ali and it was presented first to the sultan and then one copy of each was given to the ministers. Preparing horoscope for a person was in demand and very popular. The day, hour, minute, even second of the birth of new born babies were written down immediately and this note was given to one of the astrologers, then the horoscopes for the kid's personal issues and future were prepared.

In former centuries this was so exaggerated that for almost everything, like for an interview on an important deal and, moreover, for wearing a new dress, repairing or decorating the house, the auspicious hour was determined and everything was done at that hour. Another way to make some predictions on personal issues was cifr. As told by the experts, cifr is the judgements obtained by calculating from the khutbah of Hz.

Imam-i Ali that covers all events that will happen in the future and can only be interpreted by an expert and acoording to the khutbah that was prepared by "Seyh-i Ekber Muhyiddin-i Arabi". Masters were teaching it to the ones who were willing to learn, but it was kept secret and never mentioned about.